Assessing the Implicit Theory of Willpower for Strenuous Mental Activities Scale: Multigroup, across-gender, and cross-cultural measurement invariance and convergent and divergent validity.

C.M. Napolitano, Veronika Job Sutnar

Veröffentlichungen: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftArtikelPeer Reviewed


Why do some people struggle with self-control (colloquially called willpower) whereas others are able to sustain it during challenging circumstances Recent research showed that a person's implicit theories of willpower whether they think self-control capacity is a limited or nonlimited resource predict sustained self-control on laboratory tasks and on goal-related outcomes in everyday life. The present research tests the Implicit Theory of Willpower for Strenuous Mental Activities Scale (or ITW-M) Scale for measurement invariance across samples and gender within each culture, and two cultural contexts (the U.S. and Switzerland/Germany). Across a series of multigroup confirmatory factor analyses, we found support for the measurement invariance of the ITW-M scale across samples within and across two cultures, as well as across men and women. Further, the analyses showed expected patterns of convergent (with life-satisfaction and trait-self-control) and discriminant validity (with implicit theory of intelligence). These results provide guidelines for future research and clinical practice using the ITW-M scale for the investigation of latent group differences, for example, between gender or cultures.

Seiten (von - bis)1049–1064
FachzeitschriftPsychological Assessment
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - Aug. 2018
Extern publiziertJa

ÖFOS 2012

  • 501013 Motivationspsychologie