Association between vitamin D status, physical performance, sex, and lifestyle factors: a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling Kosovar adults aged 40 years and older

Ermira Krasniqi Boshnjaku, Arben Boshnjaku, Antigona Ukëhaxhaj, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Barbara Wessner (Korresp. Autor*in)

Veröffentlichungen: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftArtikelPeer Reviewed


Purpose: Vitamin D status and its association with age-related decline in physical performance and strength have already been highlighted in various ways, but data on the situation in developing countries are scarce. This study aimed to investigate vitamin D status, its association with muscle mass and function, and other potential determinants such as age, sex, lifestyle factors (physical activity, dietary behavior), self-perceived health status, medication intake, education and financial situation in adults from Kosovo. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 297 participants (54.5% women), aged ≥ 40 years. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, hand grip strength and physical performance tests, body composition, vitamin D dietary intake and knowledge were assessed. The interaction between serum 25(OH)D status, lifestyle factors and muscle traits was investigated. Results: Vitamin D deficiency (< 50 nmol/L) was observed in 47.5% of the total population, of whom 14.7% of them were severely deficient (< 30 nmol/L). No associations were found between 25(OH)D concentration and age. Daily dietary intake of vitamin D was low (1.89 ± 0.67 µg) and 87.6% of individuals did not take vitamin D supplements. However, vitamin D supplementation was the only variable that added statistical significance (p < 0.05) to the prediction of vitamin D status (3.8%). On the other hand, age, medication intake and vitamin D level contributed significantly to the overall regression model, explaining 24.9% of the 30-s chair stand performance as an indicator of lower-body strength endurance. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among community-dwelling adults in Kosovo and low serum 25(OH)D has been associated with low muscle strength. This implies an urgent need for the development of comprehensive prevention strategies, focusing on pharmacological (supplementation) but also on non-pharmacological strategies such as education, food fortification or lifestyle advices.

Seiten (von - bis)821-834
FachzeitschriftEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Frühes Online-Datum9 Jan. 2024
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - Apr. 2024

ÖFOS 2012

  • 303028 Sportwissenschaft
  • 303009 Ernährungswissenschaften