Fat-soluble vitamins in the maternal diet, influence of cod liver oil supplementation and impact of the maternal diet on human milk composition

Anna S. Olafsdottir, Karl Heinz Wagner, Inga Thorsdottir, Ibrahim Elmadfa

Veröffentlichungen: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftArtikelPeer Reviewed


Background/Aims: To investigate lactating mothers' intake of fat-soluble vitamins in free-living subjects and to what extent cod liver oil supplementation influences the maternal intake in a population with common intake of cod liver oil. The impact of maternal diet on the concentration of fat-soluble vitamins in human milk was studied. Methods: Dietary intake of 77 lactating women was investigated by 24-hour diet recalls and breast-milk samples were taken at the same occasions. Breast milk samples were analyzed for fat-soluble vitamins. Results: The median intakes were 927 μg/day for vitamin A, 5.5 mg/day for vitamin E and 3.3 μg/day for vitamin D. Maternal vitamin A, E and D intakes were higher when the diet was supplemented with cod liver oil. Icelandic breast milk was found to have high contents of vitamin A and E. Only vitamin D was too low in breast milk to meet the recommended intake for infants. Retinylpalmitate in relation to lipids correlated with maternal vitamin A intake (r = 0.23, p < 0.05). The group with cod liver oil supplementation had significantly lower levels of γ-tocopherol in breast milk (p < 0.01), whereas the supplementation did not affect other fat-soluble vitamins. Conclusion: The recommended intake of fat-soluble vitamins for lactating women can more easily be met with a cod liver oil supplementation than diet alone. Only vitamin D in human milk cannot meet the recommended intakes for infants, with normal breastfeeding. There is a relationship between the content of vitamins A and E in human milk and the maternal diet.

Seiten (von - bis)265-272
FachzeitschriftAnnals of Nutrition and Metabolism
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 2001

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