Respiratory terminal oxidases in the facultative chemoheterotrophic and dinitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis strain ATCC 29413: Characterization of the cox2 locus

Dietmar Pils, Corinna Wilken, Ana Valladares, Enrique Flores, Georg Schmetterer

Veröffentlichungen: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftArtikelPeer Reviewed


Upon nitrogen step-down, some filamentous cyanobacteria differentiate heterocysts, cells specialized for dinitrogen fixation, a highly oxygen sensitive process. Aerobic respiration is one of the mechanisms responsible for a microaerobic environment in heterocysts and respiratory terminal oxidases are the key enzymes of the respiratory chains. We used Anabaena variabilis strain ATCC 29413, because it is one of the few heterocyst-forming facultatively chemoheterotrophic cyanobacteria amenable to genetic manipulation. Using PCR with degenerate primers, we found four gene loci for respiratory terminal oxidases, three of which code for putative cytochrome c oxidases and one whose genes are homologous to cytochrome bd-type quinol oxidases. One cytochrome c oxidase, Cox2, was the only enzyme whose expression, tested by RT-PCR, was evidently up-regulated in diazotrophy, and therefore cloned, sequenced, and characterized. Up-regulation of Cox2 was corroborated by Northern and primer extension analyses. Strains were constructed lacking Cox1 (a previously characterized cytochrome c oxidase), Cox2, or both, which all grew diazotrophically. In vitro cytochrome c oxidase and respiratory activities were determined in all strains, allowing for the first time to estimate the relative contributions to total respiration of the different respiratory electron transport branches under different external conditions. Especially adding fructose to the growth medium led to a dramatic enhancement of in vitro cytochrome c oxidation and in vivo respiratory activity without significantly influencing gene expression. Π2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Seiten (von - bis)32-45
FachzeitschriftBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 2004

ÖFOS 2012

  • 104017 Physikalische Chemie