Transcranial photobiomodulation mitigates learning and memory impairments induced by hindlimb unloading in a mouse model of microgravity exposure by suppression of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation signaling pathways

Sareh Kazmi, Fereshteh Farajdokht, Reza Meynaghizadeh-Zargar, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Amir Pasokh, Mohammad Farzipour, Narmin Farazi, Michael R Hamblin, Javad Mahmoudi

Veröffentlichungen: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftArtikelPeer Reviewed


Prolonged microgravity exposure causes cognitive impairment. Evidence shows that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are involved in the causation. Here, we explore the effectiveness of transcranial near-infrared photobiomodulation (PBM) on cognitive deficits in a mouse model of simulated microgravity. 24 adult male C57BL/6 mice were assigned into three groups (8 in each); control, hindlimb unloading (HU), and HU + PBM groups. After surgery to fit the suspension fixing, the animals were housed either in HU cages or in their normal cage for 14 days. The mice in the HU + PBM group received PBM (810 nm laser, 10 Hz, 8 J/cm2) once per day for 14 days. Spatial learning and memory were assessed in the Lashley III maze and hippocampus tissue samples were collected to assess oxidative stress markers and protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), and Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). Behavioral testing showed that the PBM-treated animals had a shorter latency time to find the target and fewer errors than the HU group. PBM decreased hippocampal lipid peroxidation while increasing antioxidant defense systems (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity) compared to HU mice. PBM increased protein expression of Sirt1, Nrf2, and BDNF while decreasing NF-κB compared to HU mice. Our findings suggested that the protective effect of PBM against HU-induced cognitive impairment involved the activation of the Sirt1/Nrf2 signaling pathway, up-regulation of BDNF, and reduction of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in the hippocampus.

FachzeitschriftBrain Research
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 15 Dez. 2023

ÖFOS 2012

  • 301401 Hirnforschung