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Abstract
We compare the classification as entangled or separable of Bell diagonal bipartite qudits with positive partial transposition (PPT) and their properties for different dimensions. For dimension d≥ 3 , a form of entanglement exists that is hard to detect and called bound entanglement due to the fact that such entangled states cannot be used for entanglement distillation. Up to this date, no efficient solution is known to differentiate bound entangled from separable states. We address and compare this problem named separability problem for a family of bipartite Bell diagonal qudits with special algebraic and geometric structures and applications in quantum information processing tasks in different dimensions. Extending analytical and numerical methods and results for Bell diagonal qutrits (d= 3), we successfully classify more than 75 % of representative Bell diagonal PPT states for d= 4. Via those representative states we are able to estimate the volumes of separable and bound entangled states among PPT ququarts (d= 4). We find that at least 75.7 % of all PPT states are separable, 1.7 % bound entangled and for 22.6 % it remains unclear whether they are separable or bound entangled. Comparing the structure of bound entangled states and their detectors, we find considerable differences in the detection capabilities for different dimensions and relate those to differences of the Euclidean geometry for qutrits (d= 3) and ququarts (d= 4). Finally, using a detailed visual analysis of the set of separable and bound entangled Bell diagonal states in both dimensions, qualitative observations are made that allow to better distinguish bound entangled from separable states.
Original language  English 

Article number  2037 
Number of pages  15 
Journal  Scientific Reports 
Volume  13 
DOIs  
Publication status  Published  4 Feb 2023 
Austrian Fields of Science 2012
 103025 Quantum mechanics
Projects
 1 Active

Free versus Bound Entanglement in High Dimensional Systems
1/11/22 → 31/03/26
Project: Research funding