eggNOG 6.0: enabling comparative genomics across 12 535 organisms

Ana Hernández-Plaza, Damian Szklarczyk, Jorge Botas, Carlos P Cantalapiedra, Joaquín Giner-Lamia, Daniel R Mende, Rebecca Kirsch, Thomas Rattei, Ivica Letunic, Lars J Jensen, Peer Bork (Corresponding author), Christian von Mering (Corresponding author), Jaime Huerta-Cepas (Corresponding author)

Publications: Contribution to journalArticlePeer Reviewed


The eggNOG (evolutionary gene genealogy Non-supervised Orthologous Groups) database is a bioinformatics resource providing orthology data and comprehensive functional information for organisms from all domains of life. Here, we present a major update of the database and website (version 6.0), which increases the number of covered organisms to 12 535 reference species, expands functional annotations, and implements new functionality. In total, eggNOG 6.0 provides a hierarchy of over 17M orthologous groups (OGs) computed at 1601 taxonomic levels, spanning 10 756 bacterial, 457 archaeal and 1322 eukaryotic organisms. OGs have been thoroughly annotated using recent knowledge from functional databases, including KEGG, Gene Ontology, UniProtKB, BiGG, CAZy, CARD, PFAM and SMART. eggNOG also offers phylogenetic trees for all OGs, maximising utility and versatility for end users while allowing researchers to investigate the evolutionary history of speciation and duplication events as well as the phylogenetic distribution of functional terms within each OG. Furthermore, the eggNOG 6.0 website contains new functionality to mine orthology and functional data with ease, including the possibility of generating phylogenetic profiles for multiple OGs across species or identifying single-copy OGs at custom taxonomic levels. eggNOG 6.0 is available at

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)D389-D394
Number of pages6
JournalNucleic Acids Research
Issue numberD1
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jan 2023

Austrian Fields of Science 2012

  • 106026 Ecosystem research
  • 106022 Microbiology


  • Phylogeny
  • Databases, Genetic
  • Genomics
  • Computational Biology
  • Eukaryota/genetics

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