Experimental entanglement quantification for unknown quantum states in a semi-device-independent manner

Yu Guo, Lijinzhi Lin, Huan Cao, Chao Zhang, Xiaodie Lin, Xiao Min Hu, Bi Heng Liu (Corresponding author), Yun Feng Huang, Zhaohui Wei (Corresponding author), Yong Jian Han (Corresponding author), Chuan Feng Li (Corresponding author), Guang Can Guo

Publications: Contribution to journalArticlePeer Reviewed


Using the concept of non-degenerate Bell inequality, we show that quantum entanglement, the critical resource for various quantum information processing tasks, can be quantified for any unknown quantum state in a semi-device-independent manner, where the quantification is based on the experimentally obtained probability distributions and prior knowledge of the quantum dimension only. Specifically, as an application of our approach to multi-level systems, we experimentally quantify the entanglement of formation and the entanglement of distillation for qutrit-qutrit quantum systems. In addition, to demonstrate our approach for multi-partite systems, we further quantify the geometric measure of entanglement of three-qubit quantum systems. Our results supply a general way to reliably quantify entanglement in multi-level and multi-partite systems, thus paving the way to characterize many-body quantum systems by quantifying the involved entanglement.
Original languageEnglish
Article number180506
Number of pages8
JournalScience China Information Sciences
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023

Austrian Fields of Science 2012

  • 103025 Quantum mechanics


  • bell nonlocality
  • entanglement quantification
  • multi-level system
  • multi-partite system
  • semi-device-independent

Cite this