High-Harmonic Generation Enhancement with Graphene Heterostructures

Irati Alonso Calafell, Lee A. Rozema (Corresponding author), Alessandro Trenti, Justus Bohn, Eduardo J. C. Dias, Philipp K. Jenke, Kishan S. Menghrajani, David Alcaraz Iranzo, F. Javier Garcia de Abajo, Frank H. L. Koppens, Euan Hendry, Philip Walther

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High-harmonic generation (HHG) in graphene heterostructures, consisting of metallic nanoribbons separated from a graphene sheet by either a few-nanometer layer of aluminum oxide or an atomic monolayer of hexagonal boron nitride, is investigated. The nanoribbons amplify the near-field at the graphene layer relative to the externally applied pumping, thus allowing the observation of third- and fifth-harmonic generation in the carbon monolayer at modest pump powers in the mid-infrared. The dependence of the nonlinear signals on the ribbon width and spacer thickness, as well as pump power and polarization are studied, and enhancement factors (EF) relative to bare graphene reaching 1600 and 4100 for third- and fifth-harmonic generation, respectively, are demonstrated. The work supports the use of graphene heterostructures to selectively enhance specific nonlinear processes of interest, an essential capability for the design of nanoscale nonlinear devices.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2200715
Number of pages9
JournalAdvanced Optical Materials
Issue number19
Early online date18 Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished - 4 Oct 2022

Austrian Fields of Science 2012

  • 103015 Condensed matter
  • 103021 Optics


  • graphene
  • high-harmonic generation
  • nonlinear optics
  • optical nanostructures

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