Inclusion does not solely apply to students with disabilities: Pre-service teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive schooling of all students.

Susanne Schwab, Katharina Resch, Ghaleb H. Alnahdi

Publications: Contribution to journalArticlePeer Reviewed


Several studies have investigated (pre-service) teachers’ attitudes
toward inclusion. However, most have focused on teachers’
attitudes toward the inclusion of students with disabilities. The
understanding of inclusive education has expanded to the
provision of educational opportunities to all students, not only
those with a disability. This study investigates the attitudes of 899
Austrian pre-service teachers towards inclusion using a revised
version of the Attitudes to Inclusion Scale (AIS). The psychometric
quality of the revised scale was examined. The results indicated a
high reliability, and the two-dimensional factor structure was
confirmed by a confirmatory factor analysis. Some evidence for
convergent validity was found. More positive attitudes towards
inclusive schooling were found among pre-service teachers
focusing on inclusive education within their teacher training
programme, female teachers, and pre-service teachers with a
migration background.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)214-230
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Inclusive Education
Issue number2
Early online date30 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Austrian Fields of Science 2012

  • 503032 Teaching and learning research
  • 503034 Inclusive education


  • Inclusion
  • broad understanding of inclusion
  • inclusive education
  • pre-service teachers
  • teacher attitudes
  • teacher education

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