Uncertainty and trade-offs in quantum multiparameter estimation

Ilya Kull (Corresponding author), Philippe Allard Guérin, Frank Verstraete

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Uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics express bounds on our ability to simultaneously obtain knowledge about expectation values of non-commuting observables of a quantum system. They quantify trade-offs in accuracy between complementary pieces of information about the system. In Quantum multiparameter estimation, such trade-offs occur for the precision achievable for different parameters characterizing a density matrix: an uncertainty relation emerges between the achievable variances of the different estimators. This is in contrast to classical multiparameter estimation, where simultaneous optimal precision is attainable in the asymptotic limit. We study trade-off relations that follow from known tight bounds in quantum multiparameter estimation. We compute trade-off curves and surfaces from Cramér--Rao type bounds which provide a compelling graphical representation of the information encoded in such bounds, and argue that bounds on simultaneously achievable precision in quantum multiparameter estimation should be regarded as measurement uncertainty relations. From the state-dependent bounds on the expected cost in parameter estimation, we derive a state independent uncertainty relation between the parameters of a qubit system.
Original languageEnglish
Article number244001
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 26 May 2020

Austrian Fields of Science 2012

  • 103025 Quantum mechanics


  • measurement uncertainty relations
  • quantum Fisher information
  • quantum multiparameter estimation
  • trade-off

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